. “non” prefixes. Says The Chicago Manual of Style section 6. Em dashes can indicate pauses or disruptions in dialogue. ) En dashes do not have spaces on either side. ) is easy if you can remember these three rules: 1. It can also be used for clarity in forming complex compound adjectives. ), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.
Amplifying or Explaining. The Chicago Manual of Style (13. Otherwise it’s just a single dash/hyphen from the lower-case side of the underscore key. minus signs and en dashes are distinct characters (defined by the Unicode standard as U+2212 and U+. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice.
The em dash—so called because in traditional typesetting it was the length long dash chicago manual of a capital M—is often known by its more pedestrian, non-alphabetical name, the long dash. That means we need to explore a few details on hyphens and en dashes. When compound modifiers (also called phrasal adjectives) such as “high-profile” or “book-length” precede a noun, hyphenation usually lends clarity. But, the Associated Press Stylebook long dash chicago manual says to put spaces. Chicago Style (or CMOS) and AP Style differ when it comes to punctuating an ellipsis. Hyphen—As the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) says, the hyphen “connects two things that are intimately related, usually words that function together as a single concept or work together as a joint modifier. The References list should be alphabetized by authors last name to make it easy to find a citation referred to in a parenthetical reference used in the Author-Date format.
There’s a part in The Chicago Manual of Style (13. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), however, limits the use of the en dash to two main purposes: First, use it to indicate ranges of time, money, or other amounts, or in certain other cases where it replaces the word "to". The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. on 2:13 pm. And you thought the hyphen was the easiest mark of the bunch, didn’t you? The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) recommends using parentheses if more than one element is set off in a sentence. Use the n-dash with nothing following if the span continues. Other style guides, such as The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), use an en dash without spaces instead.
Chicago Manual of Style Formatting Guide for Microsoft Word: Block Quotes This guide provides a step by step overview of how to set up documents for Chicago style in Microsoft Word. 80, “The en dash can be used in place of a hyphen in a compound adjective when long dash chicago manual one of its elements consists of an open compound or when both elements consist of hyphenated compounds. The latest edition of the Chicago Manual of Style does not require the use of the 3-em dash. Em Dash: When and How to Use Them.
An em dash is used to set off text that amplifies or explains an element in a sentence. Chicago Author-Date. 5 If you follow The Chicago Manual of Style, use ellipses rather than em dashes for dialogue disruptions caused by the speaker’s confusion (like the confusion displayed in the second example below). The following are definitions from CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style).
Commas, parentheses, or a colon may perform a similar function. Spaces around em dash? This was a big debate between my editor and me when I was writing my book. You will have noticed that there were punctuation differences in the examples above. You should therefore check to see what your instructor prefers. Examples: Sarah says that her time at Millersville,, were the best years of her life. The em dash is perhaps the most versatile punctuation mark. According to Chicago style, these sentences would all be written with hyphens, not en dashes:.
In Chicago style, the answer to the headline’s question is 316–17 (with an en dash, although a hyphen is fine if an en dash isn’t handy). The Chicago Manual of Style&39;s (16th ed. The author of The Chicago Manual of Style’s popular “Grammar and Usage” chapter, Garner explains the vagaries of English with absolute precision and utmost clarity. ) suggests that the n-dash never be used if preceded by the words from or between. The guide also reviews the tools available in Microsoft Word and how they might be useful in a student&39;s paper. The third section lists examples for words commonly used as elements in compounds. An easy way to make an en dash is to use the shortcut menu. Hyphen The hyphen connects two things that are intimately related, usually words that function together as a single concept or work together as a joint modifier (e.
The Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed. The Chicago Manual of Style says not to put spaces. Biblical citations can appear either in the text, in parentheses, or in footnotes or endnotes, but the Bible is not included in your bibliography or reference list. University of Chicago Find it. Revised on Novem.
An en dash surrounded by spaces achieves the same effect as an em dash with no spaces, but typographically it is less disruptive. Published on Octo by Jack Caulfield. The answer about whether to put spaces around em dashes depends on which style guide you use. ) does recommend an en-dash for ranges (6. If you are using the Author-Date format the list of citations you referenced will be placed in the "Reference List" and the end of the paper. As I just mentioned, CMOS uses the en dash to indicate ranges, such as multiple dates or a series of page numbers (153–69). The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Hyphenation Table Compounds and Hyphenation 7.
In both AP and Chicago styles, the en dash is used to depict a range (e. , ____)” (Style manuals 336). 5 million copies sold! noncredit; nondegree-seeking student; nondiscrimination. To typeset an en dash on a Macintosh computer, hold down the option key and type a hyphen. 48) which says that you, the writer, can use the three-dot glyph provided in word processors (Option-; or Alt-0133), but we, the editors, are just going to change it to the properly spaced version—with nonbreaking spaces between each period, of course.
In some writing stylebooks, such as The Chicago Manual of Style and The MLA Style long dash chicago manual Manual for academic writing, en-dashes are used to show ranges in numbers and dates. Anne Landon on 11:06 am. Why go against The Chicago Manual of Style in this case? , tie-in, toll-free call, two-thirds).
¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound. If you. Homepage to The Chicago Manual of Style Online. Do not use an en dash to replace a hyphen. Em dashes, en dashes, and hyphens are not the same.
An en dash is a mid-sized dash (longer than a hyphen but shorter than an em dash) that is mostly used to show ranges in numbers and dates. The Chicago Manual of Style provides an exhaustive guide to the often-confusing hyphen. How to Use an Apostrophe (and Mistakes You Need to Avoid) How to Use Commas (and Mistakes to Avoid) PUNCTUATING AN ELLIPSIS. replace name with a long dash (3-em dash) Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. .
By Mark Nichol Some style guides recommend using en dashes in place of hyphens for a wide variety of uses, but The Chicago Manual of Style, the guidebook of record for most American publishing companies, advises a more limited set of applications. ” Examples include op-in, tax-free, one-third, and so on. , I ate 4–7 strawberries, and Jill said the best time to pick them is July–September. The notes and bibliography style is one of two citation options provided by the Chicago Manual of Style. (On a typewriter, use a hyphen. In contemporary British style, the en dash – with space before and after, as in this sentence – may be used as an ordinary dash, or what’s sometimes called a parentheses dash.
But: She was at Millersville between (or from) 19. Depending on the context, the em dash can take the place of commas, parentheses, or colons—in each case to slightly different effect. In the bygone days of typewriters, the em dash was rendered as two hyphens (--), but today modern word processing packages offer a genuine em dash in their special character sets. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations chicago (8th ed. With The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation, he has written the definitive guide for writers who want their prose to be both. 61 in the 17th ed. 78) I disagree with this aesthetically, but its recommendations are consistent with the view that en-dashes (or figure-dashes) do not belong in between numbers in other cases: "A hyphen is used to separate numbers that are not inclusive, such as telephone numbers, social security numbers, and ISBNs.
The reason is that style manuals are concerned mostly with punctuation, not typography. “As The Chicago Manual of Style is primarily intended as a. In Chicago style, the em dash—with no space on either side—is preferred. The Chicago Manual of Style notes, “Although a 2-em dash sometimes represents material to be supplied, it should not be confused with a blank line to be filled in; a blank form should appear as an underscore (e. The source of an epigraph is usually given on a line following the quotation, sometimes preceded by a dash. “In a bibliography, a 3-em dash followed by a period represents the. The 3-em dash (———). 36) says that An author may wish to include an epigraph—a quotation that is pertinent but not integral to the text—at the beginning of the book.
Search The Chicago Manual of Style --> --> --> 6: Punctuation Chapter Contents » Hyphens and Dashes. Abbreviating number ranges according to The Chicago Manual of Style (per section 9. Also, although the spaced em dash is very long, do not substitute an en dash in its place.
The Bible is cited differently from other books in Chicago style. Some general rules follow. Published on Septem by Jack Caulfield. An en dash is Alt 0150 (num lock on) and the em dash is Alt 0151. If you’re not using the 3-em dash, simply write out the full name for each entry.
How to cite from the Bible in Chicago style. Citing sources with Chicago style footnotes. Notwithstanding its versatility, the em dash is best limited to two appearances per sentence.
But anyone can spot an ordinary dash. Few people can write on the English language with the authority of Bryan A. Use the em dash to emphasize your amplification. 85 375 according to parts of speech.
Thanks in advance for a clarification! Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. 81 Other uses for the en dash The en dash is sometimes used as a minus sign, but.
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